Hydraulic actuator exerting force in one direction
The Single-Acting Hydraulic Cylinder block models a device that converts hydraulic energy into mechanical energy in the form of translational motion. Hydraulic fluid pumped under pressure into the cylinder chamber forces the piston to move and exert force on the cylinder rod. Single-acting cylinders transfer force and motion in one direction only. Use an external device, such as a spring, weight, or another opposite installed cylinder, to move the rod in opposite direction.
The model of the cylinder is built of Simscape™ Foundation library blocks, with the exception of the Translational Hydro-Mechanical Converter block. This custom hydro-mechanical converter takes into account pressure-induced density variations, unlike the Foundation library block, and therefore gives increased accuracy for mass conservation in fluid compressibility computations. The schematic diagram of the model is shown below.
Connections R and C are mechanical translational conserving ports corresponding to the cylinder rod and cylinder clamping structure, respectively. Connection A is a hydraulic conserving port associated with the cylinder inlet. The physical signal output port provides rod displacement, calculated as follows:
xpst = x0 + xp
|xpst||Rod displacement output by the physical signal port|
|x0||Initial distance between piston and cap|
|xp||Rod displacement with respect to its initial position|
The energy through port A is directed to the Translational Hydro-Mechanical Converter block and the Hydraulic Piston Chamber block. The converter transforms hydraulic energy into mechanical energy, while the chamber accounts for the fluid compressibility in the cylinder chamber. The rod motion is limited with the mechanical Translational Hard Stop block in such a way that the rod can travel only between cylinder caps. The Ideal Translational Motion Sensor block in the schematic is introduced to determine piston position, which is necessary for the Hydraulic Piston Chamber block. The piston position is also conveyed to the physical signal port P, but on its way it is corrected for the piston initial position.
The block directionality is adjustable and can be controlled with the Cylinder orientation parameter.
No leakage, internal or external, is taken into account.
No loading on piston rod, such as inertia, friction, spring, and so on, is taken into account. If necessary, you can easily add them by connecting an appropriate building block to cylinder port R.
Effective piston area. The default value is 0.001 m^2.
Piston maximum travel between caps. The default value is 0.1 m.
The distance between the piston and cap at the beginning of simulation. This value cannot exceed the piston stroke. The default value is 0, which corresponds to the fully retracted position.
Fluid volume that remains in the chamber after the rod is fully retracted. The default value is 1e-4 m^3.
Pressure in the cylinder chamber at the beginning of simulation. The default value is 0.
Gas-specific heat ratio for the Hydraulic Piston Chamber block. The default value is 1.4.
Specifies the elastic property of colliding bodies for the Translational Hard Stop block. The greater the value of the parameter, the less the bodies penetrate into each other, the more rigid the impact becomes. Lesser value of the parameter makes contact softer, but generally improves convergence and computational efficiency. The default value is 1e6 N/m.
Specifies dissipating property of colliding bodies for the Translational Hard Stop block. At zero damping, the impact is close to an absolutely elastic one. The greater the value of the parameter, the more energy dissipates during an interaction. Keep in mind that damping affects slider motion as long as the slider is in contact with the stop, including the period when slider is pulled back from the contact. For computational efficiency and convergence reasons, MathWorks recommends that you assign a nonzero value to this parameter. The default value is 150 N*s/m.
Specifies cylinder orientation with respect to the globally assigned positive direction. The cylinder can be installed in two different ways, depending upon whether it exerts force in the positive or in the negative direction when pressure is applied at its inlet. If pressure applied at port A exerts force in negative direction, set the parameter to Acts in negative direction. The default value is Acts in positive direction.
Parameter determined by the type of working fluid:
Fluid bulk modulus
The block has the following ports: